ANATOMY: Lecture Notes

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Anatomy is a branch of biology and medicine that simply means identification and description or outline of the structures of living things.


There are three broad areas:

  • human anatomy
  • animal anatomy — zootomy


  • plant anatomy — phytotomy

Human anatomy solely studies the structures of the human body.

Anatomy is a word of Greek origin It means “cutting up” Or in Latin “Dissectio”.

There are different aspects of anatomy Namely:

  • Gross anatomy Also known as microscopic anatomy
  • Microscopic anatomy Also called Histology
  • Developmental anatomy or Embryology. Embryology is the ability to know how every tissue develops and when They develop from a Zygote. It is the study of the progressive changes, which occur from the time of fertilization of the ovum by the sperm until the mature Organism is formed.
  • Regional anatomy

The human body is divided into Regions

  • the head and neck
  • the upper and lower limb
  • The trunk
  • Thorax
  • Abdomen
  • Abdomen proper and pelvis


Gross anatomy

gross/macro anatomy refers to the study of the biological structures that the unaided eye can see. In other words, you don’t need a microscope to examine these features.

The study of macroscopic anatomy sometimes involves dissection or noninvasive methods. The aim is to gather data about the larger structures of organs and organ systems.

In dissection, an organism is cut open — a plant or the body of a human or another animal — and examines what they discover inside.



Human body systems

gross anatomy includes the major systems of the body.

There are 11(eleven) organ systems within the human body:

  • the skeletal system
  • the respiratory system
  • the digestive system
  • the muscular system
  • the lymphatic system
  • the cardiovascular system, including the heart
  • the urinary system
  • the reproductive system
  • the nervous system, including the central and autonomic systems
  • the endocrine system, which regulates hormone production
  • the integumentary system, which incorporates the skin, hair, and nails, among other areas

These systems all work together and rely on one another to function.


Microscopic anatomy

Microscopic anatomy may also be referred to as histology, is the study of cells and tissues of animals, humans, and plants. These subjects are too small to ascertain without a microscope.

Through this anatomy, people can study the structure of cells and the way they relate to each other.

For example, if someone has cancer, examining the tissue under the microscope will reveal how the cancerous cells are acting and how they affect healthy tissue.



The subject stands erect, Facing the observer with the head level and the eyes facing directly forward. the feet are flat on the floor and directed forward and the upper limbs are at the sides with the palms facing forward. This position is the anatomical position.

The median line is a line that divides the body into two parts. Any structure which is nearer to the foot is called caudal or inferior. Any structure which is nearer to the head is called cephalic or superior Example the breasts is superior to the novel.


There Are Two Types of Limbs

  1. Cephalic limb or superior limb
  2. caudal limb or inferior limb

The front of the body is called ventral While the back of the body is called Dorsal.

All the structures nearer to the median line are known as median. While any structure away from the media line is called lateral. Example, the eyes are lateral to the nose. The shoulders are lateral to the breasts

Proximal means nearer to the root of the organ and distal means away from the root of the organ.

Any plane parallel to the median line is known as saggital plane All those planes which pass at the right angle across the saggital plane are called coronal plane. All planes that pass in a Horizontal manner called transverse plane

Any structure lying nearer to the skin is known as superior or superficial. While any structure lying farther to the skin is known as inferior or deep

Example, the muscle is superficial to the bone the bone is deeper than the muscle.




This movement are performed on coronal or saggital plane

  1. Flexion: this means bending forward2. Extension: This means straightening or bending backwards3. Abduction: This means away from the median line 4. Adduction: This means towards the median line




There are two types of rotations

  • The lateral rotation
  • The medial rotation.

Lateral rotation is away from the median line, while the medial rotation is towards the median line.

Note: Coronal plane is just like a circular plane.



Thoracic Wall is made up of a number of components

  1. Bony components: they are 12 to a Thoracic vertebra at the back, “Manibrum sterni” in front and Ribs from front to back.
  2. Cartilages of the ribs
  3. Muscles: The are a number of muscles
  • External intercoastal
  • internal intercostal
  • Innermost intercostal
  • Stemocostalis muscle or transversus thoracis.
  1. Ligaments and membranes. Examples, external and internal intercostal membranes and pleural
  2. Vessels and nerves. Examples, intercostal vessels and intercostal Nurse Internal nerves



The 2nd to the 7th rib Attached to the sternum directly through their cartilages. Hence. there are called typical ribs, the 8th to 10th are atypical ribs. This is because #8 attaches to #7, while #9 attaches to number #8. This is important because it gives an open Abdomen for Pregnancy to occur. 1st rib does not have a cartilage hence it is called atypical rib. the 11th and 12th ribs are called floating ribs.





the trunk is divided into 2

  • The thorax
  • The abdomen

This division is brought about by a movable partition called diagram.

There are three Cavities in the body

  • Cranial cavity Which Lodge is the brain
  • Thoracic cavity, which lodges the heart and lung.
  • Abdominal cavity which lodges the liver and the kidneys etc

The functions of the thorax

Besides giving protection to the heart and lungs, the thoracic cavity Performs in the process of respiration.

The thorax is completely divided into 2 halves by a movable petition called “Mediastinum”. The shape is truncated cone. It extends from the root of the neck to the diaphragm. The lower part encloses the upper abdominal cavity. The shape of the internal parts is kidney shaped. The anterior and posterior Diameter in the midline is the smallest.




There are two in number. The essential organs for Respiration And occupy half of thoracic cavity, suspended in the cavity attached to the trachea and the heart (That is along the medial surface).

In a newborn baby, they are pinkish in color but by adulthood, they are grayish in color due to the deposition of carbon particles – Some can be black due to smoking.

The lung is spongy, Light and filled with air.

When the lung is pressed, a particular sound is Heard and the sound is called crepitations.

The lung of a still birth is solid After birth at the first cry, the lungs are filled with air.

The male lungs are heavier than the female bones. Its average weight is 627g in Male and 567g in female.

Each lung can be represented like half cone diagrammatically. The lungs have an apex and a base

It has two surfaces

  • The crystal surface
  • the Mediastinal surface

The add three borders

  • the interior
  • The posterior
  • The inferior

The posterior part of the apex, reaches up to the neck of the first rib. While the anterior part is at the level of the first costal Cartilage.

The base of each lung is directed towards the abdomen and it is concave. The base is related to the Dome of the diaphragm, And the Dome is known as the diaphragmatic surface. At the right lung The base is separated by the right lobe of the diaphragm The base of the left lung is separated by the Loop of the diaphragm by the spleen, the stomach And the left loop of the diagram.

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