Structures of Plant and Animal Cells and Functions
- August 16, 2021
- Posted by: LrnTube
- Category: Uncategorized
Structures of Plant and Animal Cells and Functions of Their Components
Structure of the cell: The structure of plant cell and animal cell can fully be understood through the use of microscope. The cell is composed of protoplasm which can be divided into two main parts: the cytoplasm and nucleus. Each cell (plant or animal) is bounded by a thin membrane. The cytoplasm is a fluid material that consists of cytoplasmic organelles such as lysosome, golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, vacuoles etc. The nucleus is bounded by a nuclear membrane and it consists of chromosomes (chromatin granules) and nucleolus.
The animal cell in addition has centrosomes. The plant cells in addition also has starch granules, cellulose cell wall and some plastids, e.g. chloroplasts. The structure and functions of the components of the cells of organelles are outlined in the below.
|Description of Structure||Functions of cell components|
|i) Nucleus||The nucleus has aspherical body which
is covered by a double membrane which
contains hereditary materials. chromosome
and genes often centrally located in the
cell, embedded in cytoplasm.
|(i) It controls all life activities of the cell.
(ii) It stores hereditary information as it
contains DNA inside chromosomes
which take part in cell division.
|(ii) Chromosome||These are located in the nucleus and
contain deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA
|It contains the DNA which stores genetic
|(iii) Mitochondria||These are oval or rod-shaped. They are
bounded by a double membrane. The
inner membrane is folded and the interior
is filled with matrix. The matrix contains
|It is described as the power-house of the
cell. They are sites of respiration or where
energy is released from simple sugar.
|(iv) Vacuole||It occupies a large central portion of plant
cell. It is lined with a membrane and filled
will cell sap. The cell sap acts as a “store
house” for many substances.
|It contains cells sap which act as an
Osmo-regulator by helping to remove
excess water in cells.
|(iv) Nucleolus||They are dense structures within the
|They produce the ribosome for protein
|(vi) Endoplasmic||They are membrane-like structures that
reticulum form channels within the cytoplasm
|Aid the transport of materials
within the cytoplasm.
|(vii) Golgi bodies||These are series of disc-shaped sacs.||They function in synthesis, packaging
and distribution of materials.
|(vii) Chloroplasts||These are large green organelles in plant
cells. They contain chlorophyll.
|They contain chlorophyll which aid
photosynthesis in green plants
|(ix) Lysosomes||These are thin-wall bodies and they
|They are sites for respiratory enzymes.|
|(x) Ribosomes||These are small round bodies attached to
|They are responsible for protein
|(xi) Cell wall||It is a tough, fairly rigid structure that
is freely permeable in plant cells.
|(i) It provides protection, shape and
mechanical support for the cell.
(ii) It also allows free passage of
nutrients in and out of the cell.
|(xii) Cell membrane||This is a flexible membrane made up
of mainly proteins and lipids. It is
|(i) It plays a great role in selective
absorption of materials.
(ii) It also protects the cell.
|(xiii) Centrioles||These are two small granules near
nucleus of animal cells
from which flagella or cilia arise.
|They are important in cell division.
They may also serve as basal body
|(xiv) Starch granules||These are oval or round structures
mostly found in plant cells.
|They store starch for the cell.|