The Microscope: Types, Parts and Functions

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The Microscope


Definition: The microscope is an instrument used in the laboratory to observe tiny structures of living organisms which cannot be seen or observed by the naked eyes. Organisms that can only be seen with the aid of a microscope are called microscopic organisms.

When very small objects and tiny living things are observed through the microscope, they become magnified or enlarged and the detail structures can be seen properly. The study and use of the microscope will enable us to observe and identify tiny living things and the structure they are made of, especially the cell.


Types of Microscope

The various types of microscope include:

  1. Compound microscope
  2. Light microscope
  3. Electron microscope
  4. Hand lens

The hand lens is the simplest and the Most commonly used magnifier in laboratories for magnifying tiny living things and other objects.


Parts of a microscope

The microscope is made up of many parts which


(1) The plane mirror: The plane mirror helps to direct light rays to the object for proper Who lightening so that the object can be seen properly.

(2) The base: This part represents the metallic base that enables the microscope to rest properly on the table so as to prevent it from falling.

(3) The stage: This part represents where the object to be examined is placed.

(4) Clips: These are tiny structures that help to hold the object for proper viewing.

(5) Handle or arm: This part is used to carry the microscope

(6) Condenser: The condenser consists of a powerful lens that condenses the light rays coming from the plane mirror and directs them to the object under observation

(7) The rotatory nasal piece: This part is where the objective lenses of varying magnifications are fitted. It can be rotated in order to tum on the objective lens with better magnification.

(8) The eyepiece lenses: This part represents where the observer places his eyes when viewing the object through the microscope.

(9) Adjustment knobs: These are made up of two components. These are:

(a) Coarse adjustment knob: This is used in bringing the object into proper focus.

(b) Fine adjustment knob: This is used to ensure a cleaner view by sharpening the focused object

(10) The objective lens: This lens which is usually placed slight above the object is used for magnification

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